scada question & answer for TATA POWER LTD INTERVIEW
What is the full form of SCADA?
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.
Friends, the complete information about Skada is hidden in the fullform of SCADA, as written below.
Supervisory means supervisor: – As there is a supervisor in the factory and a lot of people work under it and they monitor everyone. Similarly, SCADA also supervises the entire system, plant and factory.
Control means control: – Just as the supervisor informs and controls his employees, the SCADA system also keeps his equipment under control.
Data Acquisition means Data Acquisition: – Data Acquisition means that all the information of the system is stored in one place and it can be used for future by which we can create reports and graphs.
SCADA as a system: –
There are several parts of the working SCADA system. A SCADA system typically consists of signal hardware (input and output), controllers, networks, user interfaces (HMI), communications equipment, and software. The central SCADA system typically monitors data from various sensors that are either near or sometimes mills miles apart.
What does SCADA provide?
Easy and quick to operate.
Simple works of Skada: –
Human machine interface (MMI) Man Machine interface
Handling alarms and creating graphs.
Documentation, archiving, report generation.
Interface with hardware and software
Functions of SCADA: –
Graph (Trending), Drawing: –
Creating more than one graph.
Creating the chart before and after as per your task.
Make the graph smaller, upside down, line up.
Creating Live Graphs and Historical Graphs.
Collecting data in one place.
Alarm control: –
Controlling the alarm according to the fixed range and position.
Alarm time stamped and centralized.
Notification (voice, e-mail, viewing and messaging via mobile).
Prioritizing multiple alarms.
Creating more than one alarm group.
Setting alarms in different groups.
ACCESS Control: –
Creating different user groups and giving them different rights.
Create multiple user groups.
Make the device work on its own.
Work according to the new program.
Components of SCADA (Part): –
Friends, this topic is very interesting because SCADA is used in different places and its components or parts are different according to the need everywhere but some parts are also similar which are as follows: –
RTU (Remote Terminal Unit): Friends, this is the most important part of SCADA, as when we were in school, the teacher used to make a class monitor out of all the children, just like RTU also works as a monitor. Just as the monitor explains the teacher to all the children, similarly the RTU also controls the device and sends all its talk to the control room. The RTU is the master of a local station and all equipment is its slave or servant, but the RTU itself is the slave or servant of the Central SCADA.
PLC (Programmable Logic Control): – Programmable logic control, RTU and PLC are almost the same but still have a lot of differences, both are mostly installed in the PLC factory, where the master is not for SCADA distance. RTU is for long distance.
HMI (MMI): – Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and MAN-Machine Interface (MMI) is part of a device that connects machine and human being with the help of software. Many examples of this we do in our personal life like in smart mobiles we use touch screen and computer keyboard is also an example of HMI.
Communication Network: – If we have to move around, then we need some means like: – bicycle, scooter, car, train etc. Just like data, we need a tool like mobile tower, Optical fiber etc. The data of all the field equipment also reaches the master equipment with the help of this communication network.
Sensor Sensors: – Sensors are sophisticated devices often used to detect and respond to electrical or optical signals. A sensor converts physical parameters (for example: temperature, blood pressure, humidity, speed, etc.) into a signal that can be measured electrically. Give an example of temperature. The mercury in a glass thermometer expands and contracts the liquid to change the measured temperature that can be read by a spectator on a calibrated glass tube.
MFM (Multi Function Meter) Multifunction Energy Meter: – In SCADA systems multifunction energy meter is used for monitoring. A multifunction energy meter monitors and measures all electrical parameters such as voltage, active power, apparent power, power, factor, reactive power, active energy, phase angle. This machine is used especially in cases where accurate and reliable measurement is required.
Benefits of SCADA: –
Lower operating costs: –
Stability results in better efficiency due to better engineering decisions.
Unmanned substation due to remote control.
Rapid fault catching and fixing.
Timely remedial action by rapid identification of problems and rapid and accurate actions.
Lower maintenance cost: –
To mitigate failures, accidents and obsolescence