Why in discussion?
Recently, the Department of Telecommunication has sought information from telecom companies and other industry experts on the sale and use of Radio Frequency Spectrum over the next 10 years, including the Fifth Generation Band.
Features of 5G technology:
Millimeter Wave Spectrum: The 5G network will operate in millimeter wave spectrum (30–300 GHz). A high amount of data can be sent through this network at high speeds because it will be much less affected by the surrounding signals as the frequency is higher.
Advanced LTE: 5G is the latest long-term Evolution in mobile broadband networks.
Internet Speed: Internet speed is recorded at 20 Gbps (gigabits per second) in 5G high-band spectrum, while 4G has internet speed of 1 Gbps.
In a 5G network the downlink speed will be 20 Gb / s and the uplink speed will be 10 Gb / s.
Band in 5G: 5G mainly operates in 3 bands (low, medium and high frequency spectrum), all with their own usage as well as limitations.
Low Band Spectrum: It has internet speed and maximum speed of data exchange up to 100 Mbps.
Medium band spectrum: It has higher internet speed than the low band spectrum, yet has some limitations in its coverage area and signals.
High Band Spectrum: It has a higher speed than the other two bands, but has very limited coverage and signal penetrating capability.
Obstacles to 5G technology:
Infrastructure: For a 5G communication system, basic changes will need to be made to the existing infrastructure. 5G technology cannot transfer data over long distances. Therefore the infrastructure for 5G technology needs to be enabled.
Financial burden on consumers: To take advantage of 5G technology, new phone will have to be purchased, which will increase financial burden on consumers.
Capital inadequacy: Telecom companies (like Bharti Airtel and Vodafone Idea) lack sufficient capital to buy high-value 5G spectrum.
Utility of 5G applications: 5G technology can be an important promoter of the fourth industrial revolution through cloud, big data, edge computing etc.
For India: The 5G network can improve access to services such as mobile banking and health care and create new employment opportunities.
Policy to enable 5G:
National Communication Policy-2018: The objective of this policy is to transform India into a digitally empowered economy and society. This work will be done by meeting the information and communication needs of citizens and enterprises by establishing universal, flexible and affordable digital communication infrastructure and services.
Consumer-centric and application driven National Communication Policy – 2018 will lead us to new ideas and innovation after the launch of leading technologies like 5G, IOT, M2M.
Global progress on 5G:
Construction of 5G network has already been started by global telecom companies and now it is being made available to customers in many countries:
5G has been introduced by the United States in its 50 cities.
It has been launched in 85 cities by South Korea.
Japan and China have also started testing the 5G mobile service.